Nearly every civilization in history has been adversely affected by earthquakes. The ancient city of Pompeii was destroyed and its citizens were buried alive when Mount Vesuvius erupted in 79 A.D. The Great Lisbon Earthquake of 1755 caused a tsunami that inundated the Portuguese capital and killed tens of thousands of people. The 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Fire leveled most of the city and caused more than 3,000 deaths.
When the Earth shakes, it can cause all sorts of problems. Buildings can collapse. Bridges can fall into rivers. Gas lines can rupture and cause fires. That’s why there’s a field of engineering devoted to making sure that our structures can withstand the force of an earthquake. Earthquake engineering is the study of how to build structures that will not be damaged or destroyed by an earthquake.
Earthquake engineering is the study of the behavior of structures, systems, and components subjected to earthquake ground motion. It encompasses both the linear and nonlinear aspects of this behavior, both static and dynamic. Its ultimate goal is to produce a safe, efficient, economical, and aesthetically pleasing built environment that will withstand the effects of earthquakes.
The field of earthquake engineering is dedicated to protecting buildings and other structures from the damaging effects of seismic activity. Earthquakes can cause extensive damage to even the most well-built structures, and so engineers must use a variety of techniques to minimize this risk. In some cases, this may involve reinforcing existing buildings, while in others it may mean designing new buildings that are specifically resistant to earthquake damage.
1. Earthquake engineering is the scientific field that deals with the assessment, analysis, and design of structures and systems to protect against earthquake hazards.
2. The goal of earthquake engineering is to minimize the risk of damage and loss of life from earthquakes.
3. Earthquake engineering is a relatively new field, having only emerged in the last century or so.
4. It draws on knowledge from many other disciplines, including geology, seismology, civil engineering, mechanical engineering, structural engineering and construction.
5. Earthquake engineers work to assess the seismic risks to structures and systems, and to design them to withstand or minimize damage from earthquakes.
6. They also work on developing building codes and standards that specify minimum requirements for earthquake-resistant design.
Scope of earthquake engineering includes:
1. Understanding how earthquakes work and why they occur. This knowledge is used to develop models that can predict ground shaking from future earthquakes.
2. Designing structures that are resistant to earthquake damage. This includes both new construction and retrofitting existing buildings.
3. Planning for and responding to earthquakes, including evacuating people from danger and providing emergency shelter and supplies.
4. Studying the effects of earthquakes on society, economies, and the environment.
Careers in Earthquake Engineering
Graduates from the Earthquake Engineering program can be hired as Volcanologists, Petroleum Geologists, Environmental Geologists, Earth Science teachers, Glacier or Quaternary geologists, Structural geologists, and Hydrologists.
They can likewise get involved in the design, construction, and reconstruction of roads, bridges, and nautical transport systems. Furthermore, Earth Sciences graduates may also step into the direction of teaching along with other careers.
|Conservation Hydrologist||They look at the safety of the environment when dams are built, or some water projects have been taken up, such as hydroelectric power plants. They determine the amount of pollution in water by gathering samples from water bodies. They use simulation in order to determine the occurrence of floods, drought, and tsunamis. Develop strategies to find out the best ways of water maintenance, management, and conservation. They also test the properties of water like its pH, flow rate, etc.|
|Seismic Data Interpretation Engineer||They make and analyze the models of 2D, 3D, and 4D generated by a computer. They use sound waves to make geological structural maps. They record and analyze the mathematical data collected. From the data collected, they apply mathematical models and give seismic responses and hydrocarbon production.|
|Mineral Engineer||They keep a watch on the mining of underground resources. They see that there is a safe and efficient extraction of these resources. The operations carried out by the team should comply with health and safety standards and ensure that the equipment used during extraction is safe for the environment.|
|Geo-scientist||They conduct on-field studies, visit different locations and collect samples from there. On the gathered samples, they carry out surveys and gather all other necessary information. Study the physical aspects of the earth like the earth’s composition, structure, processes, and the past, present, and future of the earth and its resources.|
|Seismic Data Collection Engineer||They play an active role in the oil and natural gas industry. They conduct surveys and send vibrations beneath the surface of the earth. They check the composition of different layers of the earth.|
|Geosciences Engineer||These scientists coordinate work between different scientists at locations outside the lab and in the lab. They supervise if the technicians are working properly or not. They also take an active part in the research and development fields of many natural resources such as petroleum. Some of these engineers are involved in preserving and protecting the environment and also take part in projects related to the cleaning and reclamation of the land. They have the opportunity to also take up the specialization in a particular aspect of the earth, such as oceans.|
|Survey Geologist||These geologists work on various surveys which are conducted by the state and the central government. They interpret the data and formulate a framework that explains the variety of different minerals and energy resources present in the environment.|
In conclusion, earthquake engineering is a field of engineering that deals with the analysis and design of structures, such as buildings and bridges that are subjected to seismic activity. Earthquake engineering is a relatively new field and is constantly evolving as our understanding of earthquakes improves. Despite this, we have made great progress in protecting our structures from earthquakes and will continue to do so in the future.